Glossary

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A

Account Takeover (ATO)

Account Takeover (ATO) occurs when unauthorized individuals gain control over user accounts using phishing, keyloggers, or malware. Protect against ATO attacks with strong authentication, unique passwords, and advanced security tools.

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Account Takeover Fraud

Prevent unauthorized access to online accounts & safeguard personal information with strong passwords, authentication, monitoring, & anti-fraud tools.

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Account Validation Service

Account Validation Service verifies user-provided information for account creation or changes, preventing fraud and ensuring data integrity. Enhance security and maintain accurate user data.

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Active Liveness Detection

Enhance security & accuracy in biometric systems with active liveness detection. Verifies real-time presence & prevents impersonation. Detects dynamic facial movements to prevent spoofing attacks.

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Address Card

An address card is a compact and organized representation of an individual's contact information, typically including their name, phone number, and address.

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Address Risk

Address risk refers to vulnerability and exposure at a specific location, including natural disasters, crime rates, and proximity to danger. Assessing it helps make informed decisions and allocate resources effectively for safety and resilience. #AddressRisk

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Address Verification Service

Address Verification Service (AVS) validates customer address info for e-commerce & credit card transactions. Enhances security & prevents fraud.

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Advance Fee Fraud

Advance Fee Fraud, exemplified by the Nigerian Prince scam, deceives victims into paying upfront fees or providing personal info under false pretenses.

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Adverse Media Screening

Adverse Media Screening: Identify risks by analyzing news, social media, and legal data. Protect reputation, comply with regulations, and make informed business decisions. Advanced technology tools used for searching and analyzing vast amounts of data.

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Age Verification

Ensure legal compliance, protect vulnerable individuals, and prevent minors from accessing age-restricted content or services. Use various methods like ID checks, third-party services, and age estimation algorithms for robust age verification.

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Age-restricted Purchases

Age-restricted Purchases: Transactions involving products or services that are legally restricted to be sold only to individuals above a certain age.

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AI-powered

AI-powered refers to technologies, systems, or devices that utilize artificial intelligence to enhance their capabilities, performance, or functionality.

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Alien ID

Alien ID: Official identification document issued to non-citizens residing or visiting a country, providing legal recognition and verifying their immigration status.

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Alien Passport

The Alien Passport is an official document issued by a country to non-citizens, granting them legal identification and temporary residency status.

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AML Audit

AML Audit examines and evaluates an organization's Anti-Money Laundering program for compliance with laws, preventing illicit activities. Enhance controls, mitigate risks, and maintain financial system integrity. Required for transparency and safeguarding against financial crime.

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Anomaly Detection

Boost your SEO with anomaly detection - Identify outliers, errors, fraud, and unusual events in data using statistical methods and machine learning algorithms. Essential for cybersecurity, finance, healthcare, and more!

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Anonymised Data

Anonymised data refers to information that has been stripped of identifying details, ensuring the identities of individuals cannot be determined.

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Anti-Money Laundering (AML)

Anti-Money Laundering (AML) refers to regulations and procedures aimed at preventing illicit funds from disguising as legitimate money. It helps combat financial crimes like terrorism financing and corruption, ensuring the integrity of the financial system. Compliance is mandatory for banks and institutions.

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Anti-Money Laundering (AML) Regulators by Country

Discover the primary AML regulators worldwide: FinCEN in the US, FCA in the UK, AUSTRAC in Australia, FIU in Singapore, FSC in South Korea, and FSA in Japan.

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Application Fraud

Application fraud is intentional deception on applications to gain benefits. It occurs in finance, insurance, employment, and government. Verify information to prevent fraud.

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Area Under the Curve (AUC)

The Area Under the Curve (AUC) is a metric used in statistics and machine learning to assess binary classification models' performance. Learn more here.

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Artificial Intelligence (AI)

Discover the power of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in revolutionizing industries, automating tasks, and enhancing decision-making capabilities. Learn more about machine learning, natural language processing, computer vision, and robotics.

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Attack Vectors

Discover the various methods attackers use to exploit system vulnerabilities & gain unauthorized access. Mitigate attack vectors with effective security measures.

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Authentication

Securely verify user identity, grant access to resources, and maintain system security with authentication. Protect sensitive information with trusted credentials.

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Auto-Approval

Automate approval processes, streamline operations, and reduce manual intervention with auto-approval systems. Increase efficiency and reduce costs.

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Auto-Decision

Streamline decision-making with auto-decision systems powered by AI. Improve efficiency, accuracy, and reduce costs in finance, healthcare, and more. Stay transparent and accountable.

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B

Bad Actor

Protect integrity, security & fairness from bad actors engaging in unethical practices. Safeguard against fraud, corruption & data breaches - crucial for all domains.

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Bank Drop

Discover the dark world of bank drops, a method used by criminals to receive illicit funds through legitimate bank accounts, hiding their true source and minimizing detection.

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Bank Secrecy Act (BSA)

Learn about the Bank Secrecy Act (BSA), a federal law in the US aimed at preventing money laundering and financial crimes. Discover its requirements and importance.

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Banking as a Service (BaaS)

Enhance customer experience and build innovative financial solutions with Banking as a Service (BaaS). Seamlessly integrate banking services into your platform.

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Barcode Scanning

Barcode scanning technology enables efficient and accurate identification, tracking, and management of products, improving operational efficiency and customer satisfaction.

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Behavior-Based Fraud Analysis

Detect and prevent fraud with behavior-based analysis. Analyze behavioral patterns and use advanced analytics to identify suspicious activities.

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Behavioral Analytics

Gain insights and make informed decisions with behavioral analytics. Track user behavior, optimize strategies, and enhance user experiences. Drive growth with data-driven decisions.

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Beneficial Ownership

Discover the importance of beneficial ownership in finance, business, and property law. Learn how it helps identify true stakeholders and ensures transparency.

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Biometric

Biometric refers to the measurement and analysis of unique physical or behavioral characteristics, such as fingerprints or voice patterns, for identification or authentication purposes.

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Biometric Passport

Discover the benefits of a biometric passport – a highly secure and tamper-proof travel document with an electronic chip containing encrypted biometric information for efficient and safe international travel.

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Biometric Verification

Enhance security and prevent identity fraud with biometric verification. Confirm individual's identity using unique physical or behavioral characteristics.

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Border Crossing Card

The Border Crossing Card is a travel document issued by the US government for Mexican citizens to enter the US for specific purposes, such as tourism or business.

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Bot

Boost productivity & save time with bots, automated software applications that simulate human interactions & perform tasks in various domains.

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Business Email Compromise (BEC)

Protect your business from cyber scams with Business Email Compromise (BEC) awareness. Implement security measures and educate employees to stay safe.

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Bust Out

Bust Out: A deliberate and forceful escape from confinement. Involves physical force, clever strategies, and sometimes violence. Illegal and actively prevented by authorities.

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C

California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA)

The California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA) grants California residents rights over their personal information, including the right to know, delete, and opt out of data collection and sales. Improving consumer privacy and control.

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Card Not Present Fraud (CNP)

Learn about Card Not Present Fraud (CNP) - unauthorized online, phone, or mail-order transactions without card present. Find out security measures to mitigate risk.

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Carding

Carding: Verifying stolen card data for malicious use. Carders obtain details from underground markets or data breaches to validate and sell for fraud.

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CEO Fraud

CEO fraud (BEC) is a cyber attack where fraudsters impersonate a CEO to deceive employees into taking unauthorized actions, leading to financial losses and compromise of sensitive data.

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Challenge-Response Authentication

Challenge-Response Authentication verifies identity by exchanging challenges and responses, enhancing security against replay attacks.

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Chargeback

Chargeback: A customer-initiated reversal of a card payment, used for consumer protection in cases like fraud or non-delivery. Merchants may face penalties.

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Check Fraud

Check fraud is the manipulation of checks for illegal gain, including forgery, alteration, counterfeit checks, and unauthorized use, posing a threat to individuals, businesses, and financial institutions.

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Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA)

COPPA is a US law protecting online privacy of children under 13. It sets guidelines for websites collecting personal data, ensures parental consent, and allows control over information. FTC enforces compliance.

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Citizenship Certificate

A Citizenship Certificate is an official document that confirms an individual's citizenship status in a particular country.

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Clean Fraud

Clean fraud: Financial fraud using real information. Perpetrators use stolen or fake identities to bypass security measures and make unauthorized transactions. Difficult to detect.

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CNP Fraud (Card Not Present)

CNP fraud: Unauthorized transactions made using card details without physical presence. Businesses employ security measures to combat and protect against monetary losses.

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Compliance

Adhere to laws, rules, and standards with compliance. Ensure ethical boundaries, mitigate risks, and protect stakeholders' interests.

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Compliance Officer

A Compliance Officer ensures adherence to policies, laws, and regulations, mitigating risks and promoting ethical practices for an organization.

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Computer Vision

Explore the field of computer vision, an AI discipline focused on enabling machines to interpret visual information from digital images or videos. Learn about algorithms and applications.

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Consular ID

A Consular ID is an official identification document issued by a foreign government to its citizens residing or traveling abroad.

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Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB)

The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) promotes fairness and accountability in the financial marketplace, protecting consumers and enforcing regulations.

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Continuous Monitoring

Proactively analyze real-time data to detect risks, vulnerabilities, and breaches. Improve security, comply with regulations, and stay ahead of threats.

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Conversion Rates

Conversion Rates: The percentage of website visitors who complete a desired action, such as making a purchase or filling out a form.

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Credential Stuffing

Prevent unauthorized access & data breaches with unique passwords & multi-factor authentication. Learn about the risks of credential stuffing.

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Credit Card Fraud

Unauthorized use of credit card details for fraudulent transactions. Learn about methods, consequences, and security measures to protect yourself.

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Cross-Channel Fraud

Cross-channel fraud: Exploiting vulnerabilities in online and offline channels for fraudulent activities. Learn how to protect your business and customers.

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Customer Churn

Customer Churn refers to the rate at which customers cease to do business with a company or unsubscribe from its services.

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Customer Due Diligence (CDD)

Customer Due Diligence (CDD) is a process that financial institutions use to verify and assess the risk associated with their customers.

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Customer Identification Program (CIP)

Customer Identification Program (CIP) is a mandatory process conducted by financial institutions to verify and authenticate the identity of their customers.

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Customer Identity & Access Management (CIAM)

Customer Identity & Access Management (CIAM) refers to the process of managing and securing customer identities and their access to digital resources.

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Customer Onboarding

Customer Onboarding is the process of guiding and familiarizing new customers with a product or service to ensure a smooth transition and positive experience.

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Customer Risk Profiling

Customer Risk Profiling: The process of evaluating and assessing the level of risk associated with a customer to determine their suitability for a particular product or service.

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D

Dark Web

The Dark Web is a hidden part of the internet that is not indexed by search engines and is often associated with illegal activities.

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Data Breach

A data breach is the unauthorized access, disclosure, or loss of sensitive information, such as personal data or trade secrets, by a third party.

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Data Capture Automation

Data Capture Automation is a process of automating the collection, extraction, and processing of data from various sources, reducing manual efforts and improving efficiency.

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Data Entry Automation

Data Entry Automation: The process of utilizing software or systems to automatically input, validate, and manipulate data with minimal human intervention.

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Data Extraction

Data Extraction: The process of collecting and retrieving specific data from various sources, such as databases or websites, for analysis or storage.

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Data Protection Act 2018

The Data Protection Act 2018 is a UK law that safeguards individuals' personal data, ensuring it is processed lawfully and securely.

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Debit Card Fraud

Debit Card Fraud: Unauthorized use of a debit card to make fraudulent transactions, often resulting in financial loss for the cardholder.

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Deepfake

Deepfake: A deceptive technique that uses artificial intelligence to create manipulated videos or images, often replacing a person's face with another's, resulting in highly realistic but fabricated content.

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Demand Deposit Account (DDA) Fraud

DDA Fraud is a deceptive practice involving unauthorized access or manipulation of funds in a demand deposit account, often through cyberattacks or identity theft.

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Device Fingerprinting

Device Fingerprinting is the process of uniquely identifying and tracking devices based on their distinctive characteristics, such as hardware, software, or network configurations.

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Device Risk

Device Risk refers to the potential threats or vulnerabilities associated with electronic devices, including the risk of data breaches, malware attacks, and unauthorized access.

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Digital Certificate

A digital certificate is an electronic document that verifies the authenticity and integrity of digital information, ensuring secure online communication.

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Digital Footprint

Digital Footprint: The trail of information left by an individual's online activity, including social media posts, browsing history, and online interactions.

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Digital Forgery

Digital Forgery: Falsification or alteration of digital content, such as photos or documents, with the intent to deceive or mislead.

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Digital Identity

Digital Identity refers to the online representation of an individual or entity's personal information, activities, and interactions on the internet.

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Digital Manipulation

Digital Manipulation: The alteration or modification of digital images using software tools to enhance, correct, or create visual content.

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Digital Onboarding

Digital onboarding is the process of integrating new users into a digital platform or service, ensuring a seamless and efficient experience.

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Digital Passport

A Digital Passport is an electronic document that verifies a user's identity online, allowing them to securely access various digital services and platforms.

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Digital Tampering

Digital Tampering: Unauthorized manipulation or alteration of digital content, such as images or documents, with the intent to deceive or mislead.

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Digital Trust

Digital Trust is the confidence in the reliability, integrity, and security of digital technologies and online interactions.

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DNI – Documento Nacional de Identidad

DNI, short for "Documento Nacional de Identidad," is a compulsory identity document issued to citizens in Spain and some other countries, encapsulating personal details like name, photo, and date of birth for official identification purposes.

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Document Capture

Document Capture refers to the process of digitally capturing and converting physical or electronic documents into a searchable and editable format.

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Document Type Recognition

Document Type Recognition is the process of automatically identifying and classifying different types of documents based on their content and layout.

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Document Verification

Document verification is the process of confirming the authenticity and validity of a document, typically through comparisons with trusted sources or by using advanced technologies.

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Driver Card

The Driver Card is a small identification card issued to licensed drivers, providing proof of their driving privileges and personal information.

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Drivers License

A government-issued document that grants individuals legal permission to operate motor vehicles on public roads.

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Drop Address

The drop address is a specific location where packages or items are delivered or picked up, often different from the sender's or recipient's address.

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Drop-off Rates

Drop-off Rates: The percentage of users who leave a website or app after visiting only one page or without completing a desired action.

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E

Egmont Group

The Egmont Group is an international organization of financial intelligence units that collaborate to combat money laundering and terrorist financing.

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Email Risk

Email Risk: Potential dangers or vulnerabilities associated with the transmission, storage, and access of electronic messages via email platforms.

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Employment Pass

The Employment Pass is a work visa issued by certain countries that allows foreign professionals to work and reside in the country for a specified period.

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Emulator

An emulator is a software or hardware that enables a computer system to imitate and run programs or operating systems designed for a different device or platform.

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Enhanced Due Diligence (EDD)

Enhanced Due Diligence (EDD) is a thorough investigation process that involves gathering additional information to assess higher-risk customers or transactions.

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Entity Resolution

Entity Resolution is the process of identifying and merging duplicate records or entities within a dataset to ensure data quality and consistency.

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EU eIDAS Regulation

EU eIDAS Regulation: EU regulation that establishes a framework for electronic identification and trust services in the European Union.

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European Banking Authority (EBA)

The European Banking Authority (EBA) is an EU agency that ensures the effective and consistent regulation and supervision of banking activities within the European Union.

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European Securities and Markets Authority (ESMA)

ESMA is a European regulatory body overseeing securities and markets, ensuring investor protection, stability, and transparency in the EU financial system.

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e

eKTP

eKTP is Indonesia's electronic ID system launched in 2011, streamlining access to public services, government transactions, and voting applications for over 172 million citizens through smart card and biometric technologies.

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eKYC

eKYC is an electronic process that allows individuals to verify their identity and authenticate themselves digitally, eliminating the need for physical documents.

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F

Facial Matching

Facial Matching: The process of comparing and analyzing facial features to determine whether two or more facial images belong to the same person.

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Facial Recognition

Facial Recognition is a technology that identifies and verifies individuals by analyzing unique facial features, used for security and authentication purposes.

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Fake Check Scams

Fake Check Scams: Fraudulent schemes where victims receive counterfeit checks, are instructed to deposit them, and then send money back to scammers before banks discover the fraud.

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False Negative

False Negative: A result that incorrectly indicates the absence of a condition or attribute, despite it actually being present.

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False Positive

False Positive: An incorrect result that indicates a condition or event is present when it is not.

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False Positive Ratio

The False Positive Ratio is the proportion of incorrect positive results among all positive results obtained in a test or system.

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Federal Trade Commission (FTC)

The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) is a government agency in the United States responsible for promoting consumer protection and preventing unfair business practices.

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Financial Action Task Force (FATF)

The Financial Action Task Force (FATF) is an intergovernmental organization that sets global standards to combat money laundering and terrorist financing.

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Financial Conduct Authority (FCA)

The Financial Conduct Authority (FCA) is a regulatory body in the UK that ensures financial markets are fair, transparent, and consumers are protected.

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Financial Crime

Financial Crime refers to illegal activities involving deceit, fraud, or manipulation of financial systems, resulting in monetary loss or illegal gains.

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Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN)

FinCEN is a U.S. government agency that combats money laundering, terrorist financing, and other financial crimes through data analysis and regulation.

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Fingerprint Scan

Fingerprint scan is a biometric authentication method that uses unique patterns on a person's fingertips to verify their identity.

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First Payment Default (FPD)

First Payment Default (FPD) refers to the failure of a borrower to make the initial payment on a loan or credit agreement.

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First-Party Fraud

First-Party Fraud: Occurs when individuals deceive a business using their own identity to obtain goods, services, or money through fraudulent means.

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Fraud Alert

Fraud Alert: A warning or notification that is issued to protect individuals or organizations from potential fraudulent activities or identity theft.

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Fraud Analytics

Fraud Analytics is the practice of using data analysis techniques and algorithms to detect and prevent fraudulent activities within a system or organization.

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Fraud Detection

Fraud Detection refers to the process of identifying and preventing dishonest or deceptive activities, such as financial scams or identity theft.

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Fraud Investigation

Fraud Investigation is the process of examining and uncovering fraudulent activities or deceptive behavior to gather evidence for legal action or prevention measures.

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Fraud Management System

A Fraud Management System is a software solution designed to detect, prevent, and mitigate fraudulent activities within an organization's operations.

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Fraud Prevention

Fraud Prevention refers to measures and techniques implemented to detect, deter, and mitigate fraudulent activities, protecting individuals and organizations from financial losses and reputational damage.

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Fraud Ring

A fraud ring is a network of individuals collaborating to engage in illegal activities, such as identity theft or financial scams, for personal gain.

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Fraud Score

The 'Fraud Score' is a numerical value that assesses the likelihood of fraudulent activity, providing a measure to detect and prevent potential fraud.

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Fraud Triangle (Pressure, Opportunity, Rationalization)

The Fraud Triangle (Pressure, Opportunity, Rationalization) is a concept that explains the factors that typically lead individuals to commit fraudulent acts.

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Fraudulent Transaction

Fraudulent Transaction: An unauthorized or dishonest activity involving the deceitful use of funds or assets for personal gain or illegal purposes.

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Friction

Friction is the resistance encountered when two objects rub against each other, resulting in a force that opposes their relative motion.

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Friendly Fraud

Friendly Fraud: A deceptive practice where a customer disputes a legitimate transaction, resulting in chargebacks, often due to forgetfulness or intentional abuse.

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Fullz

Fullz: Refers to a complete set of stolen personal information, including name, address, social security number, and credit card details, sold on the dark web.

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Fuzzy Matching

Fuzzy Matching: A technique used to find approximate matches between similar but not identical strings of text or data.

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G

General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR)

The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) is a set of regulations that governs the protection and processing of personal data within the European Union.

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Ghost Employee (a fake identity on a company’s payroll)

A ghost employee is a fictitious identity listed on a company's payroll, typically used for fraudulent purposes or embezzlement.

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Global Entry Card

The Global Entry Card is a travel document issued by the U.S. government that grants expedited clearance for pre-approved, low-risk travelers at airports and land borders.

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Global Watchlist

The Global Watchlist is a comprehensive database of individuals or entities subject to scrutiny due to potential risks or suspicious activities worldwide.

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H

Healthcare Fraud

Healthcare Fraud: Illegitimate activities committed by individuals or organizations to deceive or defraud healthcare systems for personal or financial gain.

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Heuristic Analysis

Heuristic Analysis: Evaluating the usability of a product or system by identifying and uncovering potential design flaws and user experience issues.

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I

Identity Access Management (IAM)

Identity Access Management (IAM) is a system that manages and controls user access to resources, ensuring security and reducing unauthorized access risks.

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Identity as a Service (IDaaS)

Identity as a Service (IDaaS) is a cloud-based solution that enables businesses to manage user identities and access privileges securely and efficiently.

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Identity Document Verification

Identity Document Verification: Process of confirming the authenticity and accuracy of a person's identification documents, such as passports or driver's licenses.

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Identity Fraud

Identity Fraud: The deliberate use of someone else's personal information without their consent to commit crimes or fraudulent activities.

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Identity Fraud Detection and Prevention Software

Identity Fraud Detection and Prevention Software: A tool that identifies and prevents unauthorized use of personal information, mitigating the risk of identity theft and fraud.

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Identity Fraud Detection in Banking

Identity Fraud Detection in Banking: Process of identifying and preventing fraudulent activities involving the theft or misuse of personal information in banking transactions.

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Identity Graph

The Identity Graph is a database that associates and links individuals' data across different devices and platforms, creating a unified profile.

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Identity Proofing

Identity Proofing is the process of verifying a person's identity by collecting and validating their personal information and credentials.

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Identity Theft

Identity Theft: Unauthorized acquisition and misuse of personal information, such as social security numbers or bank account details, for fraudulent purposes.

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Identity Verification

Identity Verification: The process of confirming an individual's identity, often through the use of personal information, documents, or biometric data.

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Identity Verification Service Provider (IVSP)

An Identity Verification Service Provider (IVSP) is a company that offers solutions for confirming the authenticity and accuracy of individuals' identities.

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Image Capture Application

An Image Capture Application is a software program that enables users to capture, edit, and save images from various sources, such as cameras or scanners.

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Image Pre-processing

Image pre-processing is the initial step in image analysis where raw images are enhanced or transformed to improve their quality and suitability for further analysis.

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Image Processing

Image processing is the manipulation and analysis of digital images to enhance or extract useful information, using algorithms and computer systems.

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Image Quality Assessment (IQA)

IQA is the evaluation of the overall visual fidelity and perceived quality of an image, typically based on metrics and algorithms.

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In-browser SDK

In-browser SDK is a software development kit that allows developers to create and integrate web applications directly within a web browser.

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Indian IT Act (2000)

The Indian IT Act (2000) is a legislation that governs electronic transactions, data protection, and cybersecurity in India.

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Insider Trading

Insider Trading: Illegal practice of trading stocks or securities based on non-public information obtained by individuals within a company.

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Insurance Fraud

Insurance Fraud: Deliberate deception to obtain financial gain from insurance companies by submitting false claims or inflating the value of legitimate claims.

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International Monetary Fund (IMF) – Financial Integrity Group

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) - Financial Integrity Group is a department that promotes and monitors global financial integrity and transparency.

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Interpol

Interpol is an international organization that facilitates global police cooperation to combat crime, terrorism, and other cross-border threats.

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Invoice Fraud

Invoice Fraud is a deceptive practice where scammers create fake invoices or manipulate existing ones to trick individuals or businesses into making unauthorized payments.

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ISO Certifcation

ISO Certification is a globally recognized accreditation that certifies an organization's compliance with international standards for quality management systems.

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K

Know Your Customer (KYC)

KYC (Know Your Customer) is a process used by businesses to verify the identity and assess the risk of clients before engaging in a business relationship.

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Knowledge Based Authentication (KBA)

Knowledge Based Authentication (KBA) is a security method that verifies a person's identity by asking them questions only they should know the answers to.

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L

Liveness Detection

Liveness Detection is a biometric technology that verifies the presence of a live person by distinguishing real faces from fake ones.

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Loan Fraud

Loan Fraud: Deceptive practices involving misrepresentation or falsification of information to obtain a loan, often resulting in financial losses for lenders.

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Lottery or Prize Scam

Lottery or Prize Scam: a fraudulent scheme where individuals are deceived into believing they have won a lottery or prize, often resulting in financial loss.

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M

Machine Learning (ML)

Machine Learning (ML) is a branch of artificial intelligence (AI) that enables computers to learn from and make predictions or decisions without explicit programming.

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Machine Readable Zone (MRZ)

The Machine Readable Zone (MRZ) is a section on official documents, such as passports, that contains encoded personal information for automated scanning.

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Mail Fraud

Mail Fraud: A criminal offense that involves using the postal system to deceive or defraud individuals or businesses.

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Manual Review

Manual Review: A process of evaluating and analyzing information or transactions by human reviewers instead of relying solely on automated systems.

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Marketplace Fraud

Marketplace Fraud: Deceptive activities involving online marketplaces where sellers or buyers engage in illegal or dishonest behavior to manipulate or exploit the platform.

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Mobile Payment Fraud

Mobile Payment Fraud: Unauthorized or fraudulent transactions made using mobile payment platforms, exploiting vulnerabilities in mobile devices or payment systems.

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Mobile Proxy

A mobile proxy is a server that acts as an intermediary between a mobile device and the internet, allowing for anonymous and secure browsing on mobile devices.

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Money Laundering

Money Laundering: The illegal practice of making illegally-gained proceeds appear legitimate by disguising their true origin.

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Money Mule

A Money Mule is an individual who transfers illegally obtained funds on behalf of criminals, often unaware of their involvement in money laundering schemes.

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Mortgage Fraud

Mortgage Fraud: Deceptive practices involving misrepresentation or omission of information in a mortgage loan application for personal gain.

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Multi-factor Authentication (MFA)

Multi-factor Authentication (MFA) is a security measure that requires multiple forms of identification to access a system, providing an extra layer of protection.

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MyKad

MyKad, short for "Malaysian Identity Card", is a government-issued identification card for Malaysian citizens

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N

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

NIST is a federal agency that promotes innovation and industrial competitiveness by developing and applying technology, measurements, and standards.

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New Account Fraud

New Account Fraud is the act of creating unauthorized accounts using stolen or fabricated identities for illicit purposes.

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O

Office for Foreign Assets Control (OFAC)

OFAC is a U.S. government agency that enforces economic sanctions against foreign entities to protect national security and foreign policy interests.

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Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC)

The Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC) is a U.S. federal agency responsible for overseeing and regulating national banks.

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Omnichannel Verificaiton

Omnichannel Verification: A seamless and integrated process that verifies the identity of customers across multiple channels, ensuring a consistent and secure user experience.

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On Device Processing

On Device Processing: The execution of computational tasks and data processing directly on a device, such as a smartphone or computer, without relying on a remote server or internet connection.

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Onboarding

Onboarding is the process of integrating and familiarizing new employees with an organization, its culture, and their roles and responsibilities.

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Online Fraud (or Cyber Fraud)

Online Fraud (or Cyber Fraud) refers to illegal activities conducted on the internet with the intention to deceive or trick individuals or organizations for financial gain.

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Optical Character Recognition (OCR)

OCR is a technology that converts printed or handwritten text into digital format, enabling computers to recognize and process it for various applications.

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Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)

The OECD is an international organization that promotes economic growth and social well-being through cooperation and policy recommendations among member countries.

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Out of Wallet Questions (OOW)

Out of Wallet Questions (OOW): Security questions used to verify a user's identity by requesting personal information not commonly known to others.

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P

P2P Fraud

P2P Fraud: Illicit activities that involve the fraudulent use of peer-to-peer (P2P) networks or platforms for financial gain.

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Passive Liveness Detection

Passive Liveness Detection is a method used to verify the authenticity of a user's identity by analyzing biometric traits without active user participation.

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Payment Services Directive 2 (PSD2)

The Payment Services Directive 2 (PSD2) is an EU regulation that aims to regulate payment services and promote competition and innovation in the market.

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Payroll Fraud

Payroll Fraud is the illegal manipulation of financial records or processes related to employee compensation, resulting in unauthorized gains for the perpetrator.

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Peel Chain

The Peel Chain refers to a blockchain scaling solution that enhances the performance and efficiency of transactions by using a multi-layered approach.

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Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act (PIPEDA)

PIPEDA is a Canadian law that governs the collection, use, and disclosure of personal information by private businesses during commercial activities.

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Personally Identifiable Information (PII)

Personally Identifiable Information (PII) refers to any data that can be used to identify an individual, such as their name, social security number, or address.

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Phishing

Phishing is a form of cyber attack where scammers impersonate trustworthy sources to deceive individuals into revealing sensitive information or performing malicious actions.

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Phone Risk

Phone Risk: The potential danger or negative consequences associated with using a mobile phone, such as distractions, privacy breaches, or exposure to harmful radiation.

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Piggybacking

Piggybacking refers to the act of unauthorized access to a wireless network by using someone else's internet connection without their knowledge or permission.

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Politically Exposed Person (PEP) Check

A Politically Exposed Person (PEP) Check is a due diligence process to identify individuals who hold high-profile positions and may pose a higher risk for corruption or money laundering.

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Pollination

Pollination is the transfer of pollen from the male part of a flower to the female part, enabling fertilization and the production of seeds.

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Ponzi Scheme

A Ponzi Scheme is a fraudulent investment operation that pays returns to existing investors using funds contributed by new investors.

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Predictive Analytics

Predictive Analytics is the practice of extracting information from data to forecast future outcomes or behavior, enabling informed decision-making.

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Presentation Attack Detection (PAD)

Presentation Attack Detection (PAD) is the process of identifying and preventing attempts to deceive biometric systems by using fake or altered data.

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Pyramid Scheme

A pyramid scheme is a fraudulent business model that recruits members through a hierarchical structure, where participants make money by recruiting others.

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Q

QR Code Scanning

QR Code Scanning is the process of using a mobile device's camera to scan and decode Quick Response (QR) codes, allowing users to quickly access information, websites, or perform actions.

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R

Red Flags

Red Flags: Warning signs or indicators of potential problems, risks, or suspicious behavior that should be carefully considered or investigated.

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Regulatory Reporting

Regulatory Reporting is the process of submitting accurate and timely financial information to comply with regulations set by governing authorities.

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Rental Scam

Rental Scam: A fraudulent scheme where individuals pose as landlords or agents to deceive potential renters, often requesting payment for fake listings or properties.

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RESTful API

A RESTful API is a web-based application programming interface that follows the principles of Representational State Transfer (REST).

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Return Fraud

Return Fraud: Unauthorized return or exchange of merchandise, typically involving stolen goods or fraudulent receipts.

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Risk Assessment

Risk Assessment: Process of identifying, analyzing, and evaluating potential risks to determine their impact on objectives and develop appropriate responses.

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Risk-Based Authentication (RBA)

Risk-Based Authentication (RBA) is a security method that assesses user behavior and potential threats to determine the level of authentication required.

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Romance Scam

Romance Scam: Fraudulent scheme where individuals manipulate emotions to deceive victims for financial gain.

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S

Sanctions List

A Sanctions List is a compilation of individuals, organizations, or countries subject to restrictions or penalties due to violations of international laws or policies.

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Sanctions Screening

Sanctions Screening is a process of checking individuals or entities against government lists to ensure compliance with regulations and avoid engaging in prohibited activities.

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Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)

The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) is a government agency responsible for regulating and overseeing the securities industry in the United States.

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Securities Fraud

Securities Fraud refers to the illegal practice of deceiving investors by providing false information or engaging in manipulative activities in the securities market.

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Security Features Check (SSF)

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Self-hosted API

A self-hosted API is an application programming interface that is hosted and managed by the user themselves, rather than by a third-party provider.

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Selfie Checks

Selfie Checks are verification processes that require individuals to submit a selfie as proof of identity or to confirm their physical presence.

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Shipping Fraud

Shipping Fraud: A form of fraudulent activity that involves deceiving individuals or businesses during the process of shipping goods, often resulting in financial loss.

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Sigma Fraud Score

Sigma Fraud Score is a numerical measure that assesses the likelihood of fraudulent activity based on specific indicators and patterns.

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Single Frame Liveness Detection

Single Frame Liveness Detection: A method that verifies the authenticity of an individual using a single image, ensuring they are physically present and not a spoof.

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Skimming

Skimming is a reading technique where one quickly glances over a text to get an overall understanding of the main ideas and key points.

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Sleeper Fraud

Sleeper Fraud: A deceptive scheme where fraudulent activity remains dormant or undetected until a later time, causing significant financial harm.

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Smishing (SMS-based phishing)

Smishing is a form of phishing where cybercriminals attempt to deceive individuals by sending malicious messages via SMS or text messages.

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SOC 2 Type 2 Controls

SOC 2 Type 2 Controls refer to the measures and safeguards implemented by organizations to ensure compliance with the SOC 2 Type 2 certification requirements.

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Software Development Kit (SDK)

The Software Development Kit (SDK) is a collection of tools and resources that enables developers to create software applications for a specific platform or framework.

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Spear Phishing

Spear Phishing: A targeted form of cyber attack where individuals or organizations are deceived into revealing sensitive information through personalized and deceptive emails.

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Sponsor Bank

A sponsor bank is a financial institution that supports and oversees the operations of a prepaid card program or other financial services.

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Spoofing

Spoofing is a fraudulent act of impersonating or masquerading as someone else in order to deceive or gain unauthorized access to information or systems.

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Suspicious Activity Report (SAR)

A Suspicious Activity Report (SAR) is a document used to report potentially illegal or suspicious activities to law enforcement agencies.

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Synthetic Identity Fraud

Synthetic Identity Fraud: A type of fraud where thieves create new identities by combining real and fake information to commit financial crimes.

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Synthetic Identity Theft

Synthetic Identity Theft: A form of identity theft where a new identity is created by combining real and fake information to commit fraudulent activities.

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T

Tax Fraud

Tax fraud is the illegal act of intentionally evading or manipulating tax obligations, such as underreporting income or inflating deductions, to avoid paying full taxes.

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Text Extraction

Text extraction is the process of extracting relevant information from text documents, such as extracting data from invoices or extracting keywords from articles.

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The Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS)

The Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) is an international forum that develops banking regulations to promote global financial stability.

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The Joint Money Laundering Steering Group (JMLSG)

The Joint Money Laundering Steering Group (JMLSG) is a UK industry body that provides guidance on anti-money laundering and counter-terrorist financing measures.

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The Payment Card Industry Security Standards Council (PCI SSC)

The Payment Card Industry Security Standards Council (PCI SSC) sets security standards for the protection of cardholder data and promotes secure payment transactions.

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The Wolfsberg Group

The Wolfsberg Group is an association of global banks that works together to develop best practices for anti-money laundering and counter-terrorism financing.

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Thin File

Thin File: A term used to describe a credit report with a limited history, typically due to a lack of credit accounts or recent credit activity.

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Third-Party Identity Fraud

Third-Party Identity Fraud: The unauthorized use of another person's personal information by an individual or entity not directly involved in the original transaction or relationship.

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Transaction Filtering

Transaction Filtering is the process of identifying and sorting transactions based on specific criteria, such as type, amount, or time, for better organization and analysis.

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Transaction Monitoring

Transaction Monitoring is the process of tracking and analyzing financial transactions to detect and prevent fraudulent activities or money laundering.

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Travel or Vacation Scam

A travel or vacation scam refers to fraudulent schemes aimed at deceiving individuals when booking or planning their trips or holidays.

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Triangulation Fraud

A type of fraud where a scammer uses a third party to deceive and exploit a victim, often involving fraudulent transactions or communication.

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Two-factor Authentication (2FA)

Two-factor Authentication (2FA) is an additional layer of security that requires users to provide two different authentication factors to access an account.

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U

Unbanked

The unbanked refers to individuals who do not have access to traditional banking services or do not possess a bank account.

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Underbanked

Underbanked: Individuals or businesses with limited access to traditional banking services and rely on alternative financial solutions.

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Unstructured Documents

Unstructured Documents: Informal and disorganized files lacking a predefined structure, making them difficult to search, analyze, and extract information from.

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USA PATRIOT Act

The USA PATRIOT Act is a US law passed in response to the September 11 attacks, expanding surveillance powers to combat terrorism.

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User transactions

User transactions are a record of interactions and activities carried out by individuals on a platform, typically involving the exchange of goods, services, or information.

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V

Velocity Checks

Velocity checks are used to assess the speed at which something is moving or changing, ensuring it stays within predetermined limits.

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Vishing

Vishing is a form of phishing that uses voice communication, usually over the phone, to deceive individuals into providing sensitive information.

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W

Warranty Fraud

Warranty Fraud: Deceptive act of intentionally misrepresenting or falsifying information to exploit or abuse warranty claims for personal gain.

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Whaling

Whaling is a cyberattack method that focuses on high-profile individuals or executives, aiming to deceive them into revealing sensitive information or access credentials.

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Wire Transfer Regulations

Wire Transfer Regulations: Rules and guidelines governing the electronic transfer of funds between financial institutions.

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World Bank – Financial Market Integrity Unit

The World Bank - Financial Market Integrity Unit combats corruption and promotes transparency in global financial markets.

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Z

Zelle Fraud

Zelle Fraud refers to unauthorized and deceptive activities aimed at exploiting the Zelle digital payment platform for personal gain.

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